Prom N.A. Factoid vs Fake: Identification and Analysis Models


Natalya A. Prom

Doctor of Sciences (Philology), Professor, Department of Foreign Languages, Volgograd State Technical University

Prosp. Lenina, 28, 400005 Volgograd, Russia

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Abstract. The relevance of the study is due to the problem of inaccurate information identification in the media space. The legislative acts designed to solve this problem do not offer terms for this kind of messages, and current methods of linguistic examination do not provide tools for distinguishing inaccurate messages with different intentional bases. A review of approaches to qualifying inaccurate information in media linguistics and in the field of forensic linguistics has been conducted. Fact-forming principles have been highlighted; they allow the creator of a distorted fact to make deceit invisible and effective, which results in the interiorization of this fact in the minds of mass audience. Inaccurate messages that distort reality are proposed to be divided into two groups, namely, factoids and fakes. The former are socially dangerous plausible information that claims to be a real fact. The latter are messages that suggest entertaining and playful understanding and do not pose a threat of harm to human life. Models of linguistic analysis of factoids performing a manipulative function and fakes aimed at entertaining the audience have been developed. Particular attention is paid to the criteria for distinguishing fakes and factoids; an example of inaccurate information, demonstrating signs of both pragmatic types for a manipulation purpose, was considered.

Key words: media discourse, media fact, fake, factoid, model, linguistic expertise, media linguistics, forensic linguistics.

Citation. Prom N.A. Factoid vs Fake: Identification and Analysis Models. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 2. Yazykoznanie [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. Linguistics], 2022, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 142-152. (in Russian). DOI:

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